Illustrations of wild animals [insect 9: Orthoptera]

直翅目Orthoptera

Orthoptera

Grasshoppers / Locusts / Crickets / Katydids

The name Orthoptera, derived from the Greek “ortho” meaning straight and “ptera” meaning wing, refers to the parallel-sided structure of the front wings (tegmina).

  • Classification & Distribution

    Hemimetabola

    • incomplete development (egg, nymph, adult)

    Orthopteroid

    • closely related to Blattodea and Dermaptera

    Distribution: Common and abundant throughout the world

    North America
    Worldwide
    Number of Families
    11
    28
    Number of Species
    1,080
    >20,000
  • Life History & Ecology

Orthoptera probably arose during the middle of the Carboniferous period.  Most living members of this order are terrestrial herbivores with modified hind legs that are adapted for jumping.

Slender, thickened front wings fold back over the abdomen to protect membranous, fan-shaped hind wings.  Many species have the ability to make and detect sounds.  Orthoptera is one of the largest and most important groups of plant-feeding insects.

  • Physical Features
    physical features image

    Adults

    Immatures

    • Antennae filiform
    • Mouthparts mandibulate, hypognathous
    • Pronotum shield like, covering much of thorax
    • Front wings narrow, leathery (tegmina); hind wings fan-like
    • Hind legs usually adapted for jumping (hind femur enlarged)
    • Tarsi 3- or 4-segmented
    • Cerci short, unsegmented
    • Structurally similar to adults
    • Developing wingpads often visible on thorax
  • Major Families

Grasshoppers and Locusts:

    • Acrididae (short-horned grasshoppers and locusts) — Herbivores.  Common in grasslands and prairies.  This family includes many pest species such as the twostriped grasshopper (Melanoplus bivittatus), the differential grasshopper (M. differentialis), the African migratory locust (Locusta migratoria), and the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria).
    • Tetrigidae (pigmy grasshoppers) — Herbivores.  Similar to short-horned grasshoppers but with a pronotum that extends to the back of the abdomen.

Katydids:

    • Tettigoniidae (long-horned grasshoppers and katydids) — Herbivores.  Females have a long, blade-like ovipositor.  Some species are pests of trees and shrubs.

Crickets

    • Gryllidae (true crickets) — Herbivores and scavengers.  Females have a cylindrical or needle-shaped ovipositor.  This family includes the house cricket, Acheta domesticus.
    • Gryllacrididae (camel crickets) — Scavengers.  Most species have a distinctly hump-backed appearance; a few are cave dwellers.
    • Gryllotalpidae (mole crickets) — The front legs are adapted for digging.  Most species feed on the roots of plants, but some are predatory.

Bug Bytes♣

  • In many species of Orthoptera, the males use sound signals (chirping or whirring) in order to attract a mate.  The sound is produced by stridulation — rubbing the upper surface of one wing against the lower surface of another wing, or the inner surface of the hind leg against the outer surface of the front wing.
  • Each stridulating species produces a unique mating call.  In fact, some species may be so similar to each other that they can only be distinguished by their mating calls.
  • Many grasshoppers produce ultrasonic mating calls (above the range of human hearing).  In some species, the sounds may be as high as 100 kHz.  (Human hearing extends to about 20 kHz.)
  • Species that produce sound also have auditory (tympanal) organs.  In crickets and katydids, these “ears” are on the tibia of the front legs.  In grasshoppers, they are on the sides of the first abdominal segment.
  • The snowy tree cricket, Oecanthus fultoni (family Gryllidae), is often called the temperature cricket.  Adding 40 to the number of chirps it makes in 15 seconds will equal the ambient temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.
  • The redlegged grasshopper Melanoplus femurrubrum is not only a crop pest but also the intermediate host for a tapeworm Choanotaenia infundibulum that infests poultry

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↑Quoted from the General Entomology course at North Carolina State University >Resource Library > Compendium > diptera (© 2009 by John R. Meyer; Last Updated: 8 April 2009)

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剑角蝗科Acrididae(short-horned grasshoppers and locusts)

1. 中华剑角蝗 Acrida cinerea

ARIDA CINEREA
ARIDA CINEREA

2. 短翅佛蝗Phlaeoba angustidorsis

PHLAEOBA ANGUSTIDORSIS
PHLAEOBA ANGUSTIDORSIS
PHLAEOBA ANGUSTIDORSIS, nymph
PHLAEOBA ANGUSTIDORSIS, nymph

 

蚱科Tetrigidae(pigmy grasshoppers)

1. 日本蚱Tetrix japonica

TETRIX JAPONICA
TETRIX JAPONICA

2. 突眼蚱 Ergatettix dorsiferus

ERGATETTIX DORSIFERUS
ERGATETTIX DORSIFERUS
螽斯科Tettigoniidae(long-horned grasshoppers and katydids)

1. 中华尤螽Uvarovina chinensis

UVAROVINA CHINENSIS
UVAROVINA CHINENSIS

2.尤螽Uvarovina sp.

UVAROVINA SP.
UVAROVINA SP.
UVAROVINA SP., male
UVAROVINA SP., male
UVAROVINA SP. female
UVAROVINA SP. female

3. 寰螽 Atlanticus sp.

ATLANTICUS SP. female
ATLANTICUS SP. female
ATLANTICUS SP. ,male
ATLANTICUS SP. ,male
ATLANTICUS SP. ,nymph
ATLANTICUS SP. ,nymph
  1. 绿螽斯 tettigonia sp.
TETTIGONIA SP.
TETTIGONIA SP.
TETTIGONIA SP.
TETTIGONIA SP.
TETTIGONIA SP. nymph, female
TETTIGONIA SP. nymph, female

5. 斑腿栖螽Tettigonia chinensis

 

TETTIGONIA CHINENSIS
TETTIGONIA CHINENSIS
蟋蟀科Gryllidae(true crickets)

1. 斗蟀Velarifictorus sp.

VELARIFICTORUS SP.
VELARIFICTORUS SP.

2. 扁头蟋Loxoblemmus sp.

LOXOBLEMMUS SP. , female
LOXOBLEMMUS SP. , female

3. 多伊棺头蟋Loxoblemmus doenitzi

LOXOBLEMMUS DOENITIZI
LOXOBLEMMUS DOENITIZI
蟋螽科Gryllacrididae(camel crickets)

1.素色杆蟋螽Phryganogryllacris unicolor

PHRYGANOGRYLLARICS UNICOLOR, nymph
PHRYGANOGRYLLARICS UNICOLOR, nymph

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